Why Most American’s Have a Drug Addiction Problem

22 01 2019

Updated 22 January 2019, Marc Woodard

Why do I say most American’s have a drug use problem?

Drug chemical addictions aren’t all connected to illicit activity with potential to incarcerate someone.

To educate our children fully on unhealthy addiction habits, it is important for parents to also learn and share how the marketplace supplies hyper-palatable addictive food and drinks with chemical stimulants that appear harmless… but have the potential to lead to an illicit gateway drug and cause increased health risk.

To begin understanding this connection, let’s review the obvious first – illicit drug use and harm to society. Then look at how legal chemicals are hidden in food products that begin an addictive lifestyle habit starting at a young age. You may than deduce the legal – plus the illicit substance use in total is causing far more harm to society than what the latest data shows us. And that most Americans are addicted to some form of chemical stimulant or drug.

Looking at the DEA Drug Seizure statistics for 2010/2014, It shows the following drug confiscation data seized and measured in kilograms: Cocaine (30,061/33,770 kgs), Heroin (713/1,020kgs), Marijuana (725,862/74,225kgs), and Methamphetamine (2,224/2946 kgs), Hallucinogens (2,605,997/48,970 dosage units).

Illicit drug use is on the rise with the exception of Marijuana [likely to do with states legalization] and Hallucinogens [May be significantly declining – partly to do with States Marijuana legalization, easier access to pharmaceuticals and other drugs; and/or the table is pending DEA table update]. NOTE: CY 2014 statistics are preliminary and subject to updating.

These numbers are indeed impressive drug seizure statistics. But, it is also acknowledged by all drug enforcement agencies that they only represent a fraction of what’s being used on the streets. So really, how do you quantify actual production and use of drugs under the radar? The answer is you can’t. For every person incarcerated and kilogram seized, many don’t get caught. The data only represents a fraction of what’s out there within the illicit drug market.

In 2010, national and state statistics information pertaining to drug use, addiction and drug abuse shows: 22.6 million Americans over the age of 12 have used illicit drugs within the last month of the survey being completed. The drug most used by 17.4 million individuals other than alcohol is marijuana; and then followed by painkillers, then hallucinogens and cocaine. Drug overdoses has risen 540% since 1980. Prescription drug abuse is up 500% since 1990.  The cost to employer’s employee productivity from drug abuse is 122 billion dollars per year.

“In 2014, 27.0 million people aged 12 or older used an illicit drug in the past 30 days [an increase of ~4.5 million users from the 2010 data], ‘which corresponds to about 1 in 10 Americans (10.2 percent). This percentage in 2014 was higher than those in every year from 2002 through 2013. The illicit drug use estimate for 2014 continues to be driven primarily by marijuana use and the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers, with 22.2 million current marijuana users aged 12 or older … and 4.3 million people aged 12 or older who reported current nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers.” (Hedden et al., 2015)

Addictive drug use data is used as a predictive indicator to determine future sales and potential earnings for other addictive consumables. For example, in knowing Americans spend an average of $90 billion dollars every year on alcoholic beverages has a percentage based relationship to alcohol and other mind altering substances related to automobile crashes and spousal abuse for example. These statistics are also very good predictors of other social and penal services needed for policing, intervention and incarceration services, programs, equipment and facilities resources.

For many children an alcohol experience begins at a very early stage in life. At the beginning of 2000, an estimated 7 million of our youth from 12 to 20 years old admitted to being drinkers. Another 6.4 million were admitted binge drinkers. Over 6 million children claimed to live with parents that have a drug addiction problem. 56% of students in grades 5 to 12 mention that advertising alcoholic beverages encourages them to drink.

In 2001, a survey showed 25 million Americans admitted to driving under the influence of alcohol and that 23% of our 18-25 year olds self admitted to this fact. Local law enforcement statistics shows us that ~2 million arrests nationwide are made each year due to driving under the influence. Although these statistical numbers are alarming, it would be more alarming because only a portion of alcohol abuse is recorded… many driving under the influence are not caught. The same is also true of national surveys; many alcoholics do not self-proclaim their alcohol use. But one statistic is pretty clear: the latest National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA 2017) shows 10,874 people were killed in vehicular alcohol related deaths. Now compare that number to a mid-size populated town and that statistic is alarming.

What is the impact to our economy regarding alcohol abuse? Approximately 100 million in health care costs. That does not include employment productivity losses, penal system costs, personal injury, property damage and intervention treatment, etc. Unemployed adults are found to be the highest percentage (12.2%) of drinkers between the ages of 26 through 34. Industrial injuries (47%) and fatalities (40%) are directly related to alcohol abuse.

Those predisposed to be addicts are not helped by the consumer marketplace. It doesn’t help when manufacturers knowingly spike our foods and drink with unnecessary food chemical stimulants for the sake of generating a profit. For example, adding more caffeine, nicotine, artificial sweeteners, etc., in concentrated doses is addictive. The only reason to do this is to cause a consumer habit beginning at a young age to crave a chemical dependency.

Let’s take a look at a relevant addiction example that places an unfair financial burden on the health care system and nonsmokers. Every year smoking kills ~440,000 people through tobacco related illnesses and disease. That’s more Americans than the Vietnam and WWII casualties combined. In total, tobacco causes more than 5 million disease related deaths per year (lung, kidney, breast, pancreas, lymph, ovaries, larynx, mouth and neck cancer, etc.). Simply consider the medical costs to treat addiction, including long term illness and disease.

For every 1 person that dies from smoking tobacco, 20 more will suffer with a long-term illness (respiratory, immune, intestinal, organ failure etc.). The tobacco industry spends approximately $34 million dollars a day in advertising (2006 data). It’s no wonder roughly 1 in 5 high school students are addicted to tobacco and other chemical stimulants.

Another way to look at this data – legal product or not, we the parents pay the $34 million a day tobacco advertising bill that gets kids hooked to continue the habit. Then pay more in health care premiums and productivity losses when they get sick.

Here’s a good question to ask our legislative policy makers within the health care industry. Why can a tobacco business deduct an advertising expense that influences youth to smoke at earlier ages, costing everyone to pay higher health insurance premiums? We the non-smoking population should receive an incentive for not smoking and not contributing to the rise in health insurance premiums – but this is not the way it works. How’s that fair? Shouldn’t these manufactures pay the cost of those insurance premium hikes as a result of related illness, disease, death and loss of national productivity.

Moving on, let’s look at another harmful consumer habit. The food industry creates more caffeine and artificial sweetened food and drink addicts than all other legal and illicit drugs combined. By first targeting youth to “seemingly” harmless “pick me” up in the morning and energy boost products throughout the day – a new generation of stimulant craving addicts is born. One only has to think of the plethora of energy drinks and processed fast foods. These drinks and foods are loaded with caffeine, sugar, salt and other hyper-palatable chemicals that make you want more.

For example a Monster Energy XXL drink contains 4 times the average content of caffeine found within a can of soda (22-46 mg of caffeine). This energy drink contains 240 mg of caffeine. The 81 grams on average sugar content in these products also contribute to weight gain and obesity. And when the metabolism slows down and weight increases to unhealthy levels – often leads to anxiety and increased blood pressure, etc. It is also noted that once a consumer stops this habit withdraw symptoms occur: depression, lethargy, nausea, headaches and vomiting. Although daily doses up to 400mg of caffeine/day for most adults is OK (University of California), it is not healthy for nursing mothers, children and teens. Another noteworthy caffeine statistic: 50% of the population, or 150 million Americans drink coffee. Also, independent coffee shops alone equate to 12 billion in annual sales.

Some would argue these unseeingly harmless consumables are gateway addictions to illegal drug use. Whereas the legal stimulants no longer provide the feel good rush… the young consumer looks for something stronger to alleviate a depressed mind, body or spirit to normalize daily living experiences.

It appears most American’s young and old have very addictive consumer habits in general with regard to tobacco, alcohol, sugar and caffeine products including prescription and illegal drug use. Behavioral therapists know any hyper-palatable and mind altering product product can lead to addictive habits capable of changing behavior. And to change an unhealthy addiction habit may require medical treatment with counselling.

Many lives are lost and families destroyed when addictive habits take complete and utter control over a persons ability to change a destructive lifestyle course.

The consumer industries, market makers and government policy wonks understand how  legal consumer habits connect to illicit drug use and unhealthy behavioral habits – that increase health risks and costs taxpayers more. Unfortunately it is those addicted within the legal marketplace that have the greatest potential to cost the rest of us – and themselves their liberties, freedoms, health and potentially life

– And the number of people addicted to chemical substances is staggering beyond any statistics listed to date… And should be considered a near health epidemic that needs greater educational resources to reverse it’s course.

Author: Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, ARNG, CPT, RET. 2019 Copyright. All rights reserved, Mirror Athlete Inc., http://www.mirrorathlete.com, Sign up for your Free eNewsletter.

References

Drug-Rehabs.org. Alcohol Statistics. http://www.drug-rehabs.org/alcohol-statistics.php

Hedden et al. SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. 2015.  https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FRR1-2014/NSDUH-FRR1-2014.pdf

Michael’s House.  Drug Addiction Facts and Statistics http://www.michaelshouse.com/drug-addiction/drug-addiction-statistics/

MyAddiction.com. Tobacco, Smoking, and Nicotine Addiction Statistics and Facts. January 14, 2012 http://www.myaddiction.com/education/articles/tobacco_statistics.html

US Drug Enforement Administration. Statistics and Facts. https://www.dea.gov/domestic-drug-data

Wilkinson, J. Monster Energy Drink Addiction.  Mar 7, 2011 http://www.livestrong.com/article/398579-monster-energy-drink-addiction/





Personality Disorders, Treatment and Homeless Connection

14 10 2018
Healthy relationships are can be challenging to maintain. A personality disorder multiplies that challenge exponentially.

Maintaining a healthy relationships is challenging enough under the best circumstances. A personality disorder  exponentially multiplies the risk of relational loss.

Updated:  14 October 2018, by Marc Woodard

Personality disorders (PD) are long-term chronic patterns of erratic behavior that will likely require a lifetime of care.  Often this is a result of people who don’t seek behavioral therapy and drug intervention early on.

Or are misdiagnosed and treated irrelevantly.  Or don’t comply with prescribed treatment program(s).

Chronic PD behaviors are also known to lead to homelessness.  Especially when the individual is drug addicted and believes self-medication is the solution to their problems.  This connection is further explained in review of the 10 personality disorders as defined below.

Chronic and complex personality disorders make it more likely alcohol and drug abuse will exponentially escalate abnormal behavior and lead to self-harm, homelessness and jail time.  The complexity of abnormal behaviors further challenges medical providers to assess an accurate diagnosis and treatment prescription program.  Especially when mental health protocols are not followed.

“There aren’t any drugs approved for the treatment of personality disorders.  However, certain types of prescription medications might be helpful in reducing various personality disorder symptoms… (Carey 2012).”

PD Behavioral Characteristics

When does a PD begin and who does it affect.

When does a PD begin and who does it affect.

It appears this disorder has a connection to child abuse and neglect.  But abuse need not occur to develop a behavioral disorder as a child or homeless adult.

People with PD’s are often unaware their thoughts and behaviors are not normal and inappropriate.  And once confronted a problem exists – generally little responsibility is taken for it.

The avoidance of seeking medical treatment for a personality disorder eventually results in negative impacts on relationships, social environment and holding a job.

This is because PD mood swings cause behavior to become unstable and irrational.  Where relationships tend to be like a roller coaster ride and feelings swing from love to hate, or trust to distrust, or rational to irrational rather abruptly.  These feelings are often connected to real or imaged abandonment situations that cause an avoidance of letting someone get too close.  And that distancing causes antisocial, obsessive, detached, hostile or needy behaviors.

During personal crisis such as feelings of abandonment, harmful behaviors may ensue, e.g., wrist cutting, over dose, binge eating, uncalled for and inappropriate anger, impulse buying, substance abuse, shoplifting, unable to cope with being alone, unhealthy sexual relationships, emptiness and boredom coupled with anxiety and depression.

Anti-social behavior, or someone that simple enjoys going it alone?

Anti-social behavior, or someone that simpley enjoys going it alone?

Currently there are ten classified Personality Disorder Types within 3 clusters:

Cluster A_PD (Type: Odd and Eccentric Behavior)

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD)

 Distrust and suspicious perceptions prevail over trust of others.  Those who encounter this personality type may communicate innocently enough with them.  However the paranoid personality often interprets others’ intention and environment or events incorrectly.  This incorrect read is often taken as a personal threat and harmful to relationships.  It causes them to hold grudges, distrust people and become hostile to people who don’t deserve the cold shoulder.  Close friendships are uncommon and a cold disposition in attitude is the norm.  Early childhood trauma may be a cause, and is more common in males (Martel 2015).

Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD)

They are detached from close relationships and lack motivation and drive to be with others or build relationships.  They have a limited range of emotions and require little to no approval or attention from others.  For the most part they have a persistent indifference of interests that make relationship building near impossible.  Since the social skills are lacking a secretive lifestyle preference to remain in solitude and away from others seems to be the norm (Glunk 2015).

Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD)

 An eccentric personality type with severe anxieties in a social sense and lacks an emotional response.  They display paranoia and anxiety around people and have unusual beliefs outside of conventional norms.  They are somewhat a loner and feel more comfortable living in solitude.  At times may appear to others as delusional due to strange thoughts and behavior.  The mannerisms are often bizarre by-way of socially nervous tendencies with atypical communicative speech patterns.  Which include talking to themselves and hard to follow rambling and complicated speech patterns.  “While STPD is on the schizophrenia spectrum, people with STPD don’t usually experience psychosis (Martel 2015).”  Psychosis is defined as a loss of contact with reality.

Cluster B Personality Disorder (Type Dramatic and Erratic)

 Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD, or ASPD) 

With the breakdown of traditional famly values and structure an increase in PD's occured.

With the breakdown of traditional family structure and values an increase in PD’s and homelessness arose.

The APD characteristics display manipulative behavior, lack of conscience and care for others and adept at manipulation.  To be charming is a ruse to get what they want to self-gratify and feel no guilt over the deceit.  “While statistics indicate that 50%-80% of incarcerated individuals have been found to have antisocial personality disorder, only 15% of those convicted criminals have been shown to have the more severe antisocial personality disorder type of psychopathy (Dryden-Edwards and Stoppler 2016).”

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Behavioral irregularities are often displayed by abrupt and unpredictable mood changes and outbursts.  Self-image issues and high fear sensitivities to rejection and abandonment make it difficult to maintain relationships.  Destructive behaviors such as suicide threats and attempts are often associated with this disorder.  “The diagnosis of BPD is frequently missed and a misdiagnosis of BPD has been shown to delay and/or prevent recovery.  Bipolar disorder is one example of a misdiagnosis as it also includes mood instability. There are important differences between these conditions but both involve unstable moods.  For the person with bipolar disorder, the mood changes exist for weeks or even months. The mood changes in BPD are much shorter and can even occur within the day (NEA 2016).”

 Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)

This personality type feels a need to be center of attention, lacks empathy, and displays an egocentric behavior and feels full of self-importance.  Also sees themselves above others in appearance or intellectual endowment [whether true or not] has a grandiose sense of entitlement and believes he/she is special, or falls into a high class or status of people.  “Because personality disorders describe long-standing and enduring patterns of behavior, they are most often diagnosed in adulthood.  It is uncommon for them to be diagnosed in childhood or adolescence, because a child or teen is under constant development, personality changes and maturation. However, if it is diagnosed in a child or teen, the features must have been present for at least 1 year (Bressert 2016).”

Grandiosity is closely associated with NPD.  It is considered a personality disorder.  Where one feels entitled, is self-absorbed and lacks empathy for others.  “Grandiosity occurs when a person has an inflated self-esteem, believe they have special powers, spiritual connections, or religious relationships.  When grandiosity is severe, the person may be delusional about his or her capabilities (Droogendijk 2009).”

Chronic PD's often break up relationships. While distrust, anxiety and paranoia anti-social loner behaviors increase.

Chronic PD’s often cause close relationships to never begin. Distrust, anxiety and paranoia increase anti-social loner behaviors.

He/she has an unrealistic sense of superiority and are often referred to as narcissist, or Bipolar and seem boastful and rude.  They feel a sense of uniqueness which can only be matched intellectually and understood by a handful of people.  And since they feel superior to everyone else they have distain for those they see inferior to them.  “In the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the presence of grandiosity is used in combination with several other symptoms to confirm a diagnosis of bipolar.  This symptom also occurs in children with early onset bipolar disorder (Purse 2016).”

Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD)

This type of personal disorder is obsessed with appearance and acts sexually provocative with excessive attention seeking tendencies.  They desire to be at center stage to get reassurance and approval.  And are overly sensitive to criticism and disapproval which causes inappropriate and unwanted behavior.  Such as an over the top melodramatic outburst and manipulative behaviors which push people away.  The outbursts are coupled with a consistent flood of emotional storms that reap havoc on romantic, social and for that matter, inability to solidify any meaningful and long term personal commitments and relationships.

Since this personality type has a low tolerance toward delayed gratification, they often blame others for their shortcomings.  Although negative attention may seem shallow to others, it is better than no attention at all for this person.  “Histrionic personality disorder can improve with talk therapy and sometimes medicines.  Left untreated, it can cause problems in people’s personal lives and prevent them doing their best at work (Berger 2014).”

Cluster C (Personality Disorder:  Type Anxious and Fearful)

How much time would be spent counting the different colored flowers before you could move on.

How much time would be lost if you couldn’t control an obsession to count the different colored flowers in front of you before you moved on.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

This disorder is displayed by orderly perfection and preoccupation to detail that causes a lack of flexibility with regard to healthy lifestyle and time balance.   The disorder is also a contributor of workaholic tendencies.  Fears of losing control over orderly perfection is the compulsion which causes the irrational obsession to continue its course.  And this interferes with getting things done that matter.

Or what would you do if you couldn't more forward until all cloud formations represented an image. I.e., looks like a head with ear wings.

Or what would you do if you couldn’t more forward until all cloud formations made sense. E.g., looks like a head with ear wings.  Ridiculous… not to someone with a complex mix of PD traits.

“Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation — that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress) (Bressert 2016).”

Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD)

Family playing at beach lake

Personality disorders often begin during childhood and not diagnosed until adulthood. Fear of loss, anxiety and unacceptance from others begin irregular and erratic thoughts and behavioral patterns early on in life.

Fears rejections and feeling of inadequacy in front of others, but wants desperately to be accepted.  Very self-conscious and avoids social group settings and situations when possible.  Jobs with little human interaction are preferred.  “Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is usually first noticed in early adulthood and is present in a variety of situations. ‘APD is treated in much the same way as social anxiety disorder.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, social skills training, group therapy, and medication have all been shown to have some impact on the disorder.  However, it is sometimes difficult for people with APD to trust their therapist enough to complete treatment (Cuncic 2016).”

Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD)

The need to be taken care of to meet emotional and physical needs and fear of abandonment and being alone cause’s clinginess.  The reliance on others to make important life decisions is needed for advice and reassurance.  If relational trusts are broken, suicidal tendencies and acts increase.

Mental Health Treatment and Homelessness Connection

Daytime drifter and homeless shelters occur in not so obvious settings. But blend well into seasonal beach activities.

Daytime drifter and homeless shelters occur in not so obvious settings. But blend well with seasonal outdoor recreational activities.

A combination of mental health and drug prescription [psychotherapy] treatment plan includes exploration of inappropriate behavioral causation that triggers out-of-control feelings and thoughts.

Once childhood or adult abuse-history connects to current social, or environmental, or personal stress-triggers that cause erratic and undesirable behavior; a relative diagnosis and treatment plan is prescribed to manage it.

However there are caveats to this approach.  Success of treatment is dependent on accurate diagnosis and wiliness of patient to opt-in, trust their medical care provider and follow the treatment plan.

For instance, “The treatment that’s best for you depends on your particular personality disorder, its severity and your lifestyle situation.  Often, a team approach is needed to make sure all of your psychiatric, medical and social needs are met.  Because personality disorders are long-standing, treatment may require months or years (MayoClinc 2016).”  In severe cases when someone can’t care for themselves, or present harm to others, admittance to psychiatric care is the process towards stabilization.  Thereafter may lead to successful outpatient treatment.

Recall, I stated the individual has to opt-in to receive mental health resources and follow the treatment plan.

Unfortunately for too many, the inability to take responsibility for a personality disorder problem causes a revolving door that does not adequately help a chronic mental health condition especially when connected to drug addiction.  For those who choose to self-medicate and deal with a chronic personality disorder… many of those people are homeless.

The treatment protocol for the mentally unstable homeless person who is a public nuisance and is drug addicted and breaks the law doesn’t receive the mental health resources they need.  Although homelessness is not a crime and not all homeless people commit crimes… personality disorders are found within a large sector of the homeless population.  Many have all the signs and symptoms of PD’s.  That is they have fears and anxieties and paranoia associated with anti-social lifestyle which leads to obsessions and depression and illegal self-medication habits.  These behavioral habits amplify the PD stress-triggers which cause inappropriate behavior.

When the mentally-ill are caught for inappropriate behavior or breaking the law to sustain their habits, short-term jail time or out-patient psychiatric care is served.  Jail time release is often conditional on probation agreements which are almost always broken by those with complex personality disorders and drug abuse.

Homeless people with a complex PD and drug addiction history don’t have the mental faculties or resources to comply with orderly and civil penalty processes like the rest of us.  So the sequence is repeated costing tax payers dearly as the revolving door to the homeless is a reactive civil penalty process as opposed to a proactive mental health treatment program.

Community must come together to find proactive solutions to deal with the homeless problem.

Community must come together to find proactive solutions to deal with the homeless PD and drug addiction problem.

There is no good answer for the homeless that suffer with personality disorders and/or drug addiction.  Not until society determines they want to be part of the solution.  And that solution must provide the comprehensive mental health treatment, public transportation and sheltered resources, etc., needed to get on with their lives.  I regress, moving on…

Medications may include stabilizers to help balance mood swings and impulses, or anti-depression medications to help reduce feelings of hopelessness and irritability.

If a patient has lost touch with reality then anti-psychotic drugs are prescribed.  Anti-anxiety medications are to help reduce anxieties.  But for some these drugs can lead to impulsive behavior.  For this reason their avoided when diagnosed with other types of personality disorders.

Recommendation if a PD disorder is suspect – Get diagnosed and treated by a medical professional if you, or a friend or loved one suffers from a personality disorder that now causes out-of-control behavior, drug addiction and homelessness.

Common treatment programs for any one of the 10 diagnosed personality disorders listed above may require a combination of the following types of therapy treatment by a behavioral therapist and/or phycologist, etc., : On-going Group, one-on-one psychotherapy [includes mental health and prescription protocol], behavioral-social and drug addiction therapy, etc.

References,

Berger, Fred K., MD. “Histrionic Personality Disorder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.” MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine, 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Bressert, Steve, Ph.D. “Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Symptoms | Psych Central.” Psych Central. Psych Central, 17 July 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Bressert, Steve, Ph.D. “Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Symptoms & Treatment | Psych Central.” Psych Central. Psych Central, 18 Nov. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Carey, Elea. “Personality Disorder.” AARP. HealthReferenceLibrary, 31 July 2012. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Cuncic, Arlin. “Avoidant Personality Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder: Shared Genetics.” Verywell. About, Inc., 27 July 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Droogendijk, Daniel, RPN. “Bipolar Mania Symptoms.” Grandiosity – Bipolar Disorder Symptoms. Daniel Droogendijk, 4 Feb. 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Dryden-Edwards, Roxanne, MD, and Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD. “Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms, Treatment, Causes – What Is the Difference between Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy? – MedicineNet.” MedicineNet. MedicineNet, Inc., 16 Feb. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Gluck, Samantha. “What Is Schizoid Personality Disorder?” HealthyPlace. HealthyPlace.com, Inc., 20 Oct. 2015. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Martel, Janelle. “Paranoid Personality Disorder.” Healthline. Healthline Media, 17 Dec. 2015. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Mayo Clinic Staff Print. “Personality Disorders.” Treatment – Personality Disorders – Mayo Clinic. MayoClinic.org, 23 Sept. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016

Moore DP, Jefferson JW. Borderline personality disorder. In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of Medical Psychiatry.  2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2004: chap 138.

Montandon M, Feldman MD. Borderline personality disorder. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2008: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008.

Purse, Marcia. “Grandiosity in Bipolar Disorder: Definition and Stories.” Verywell. About, Inc., 14 July 2016. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

NEA. “BPD Overview – Borderline Personality Disorder.” Borderline Personality Disorder. NEA.BPD, 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Author:  Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, USA Medical Services Officer, CPT, RET.  2018 Copyright.  All rights reserved, Mirror Athlete Publishing @: www.mirrorathlete.com, Sign up for FREE Monthly eNewsletter.





Personality Disorders, Treatment and Homeless Connection

24 11 2016
Healthy relationships are can be challenging to maintain. A personality disorder multiplies that challenge exponentially.

Maintaining a healthy relationships is challenging enough under the best circumstances. A personality disorder  exponentially multiplies the risk of relational loss.

Updated:  24 November 2016, by Marc Woodard

Personality disorders (PD) are long-term chronic patterns of erratic behavior that will likely require a lifetime of care.  This is because people don’t seek behavioral therapy and drug intervention early on.  Or are misdiagnosed and treated irrelevantly.  Or don’t comply with a treatment program.

Chronic PD behaviors are also known to lead to homelessness.  Especially when the individual is drug addicted and believes self-medication is the solution to their problems.  This connection is further explained after the 10 personality disorders are defined below.

Chronic and complex personality disorders make it more likely alcohol and drug abuse will exponentially escalate abnormal behavior and lead to self-harm, homelessness and jail time.  The complexity of abnormal behaviors further challenges medical providers to assess an accurate diagnosis and treatment prescription program.  Especially when mental health protocols are not followed.

“There aren’t any drugs approved for the treatment of personality disorders.  However, certain types of prescription medications might be helpful in reducing various personality disorder symptoms… (Carey 2012).”

PD Behavioral Characteristics

When does a PD begin and who does it affect.

When does a PD begin and who does it affect.

It appears this disorder has a connection to child abuse and neglect.  But abuse need not occur to develop a behavioral disorder as a child or homeless adult.  People with PD’s are often unaware their thoughts and behaviors are not normal and inappropriate.  And once confronted a problem exists generally little responsibility is taken for it.  The avoidance of seeking medical treatment for a personality disorder eventually results in negative impacts on relationships, social environment and holding a job.

This is because PD mood swings cause behavior to become unstable and irrational.  Where relationships tend to be like a roller coaster ride and feelings swing from love to hate, or trust to distrust, or rational to irrational rather abruptly.  These feelings are often connected to real or imaged abandonment situations that cause an avoidance of letting someone get too close.  And that distancing causes antisocial, obsessive, detached, hostile or needy behaviors.

During personal crisis such as feelings of abandonment, harmful behaviors may ensue, e.g., wrist cutting, over dose, binge eating, uncalled for and inappropriate anger, impulse buying, substance abuse, shoplifting, unable to cope with being alone, unhealthy sexual relationships, emptiness and boredom coupled with anxiety and depression.

Anti-social behavior, or someone that simple enjoys going it alone?

Anti-social behavior, or someone that simpley enjoys going it alone?

Currently there are ten classified Personality Disorder Types within 3 clusters:

Cluster A_PD (Type: Odd and Eccentric Behavior)

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD)

 Distrust and suspicious perceptions prevail over trust of others.  Those who encounter this personality type may communicate innocently enough with them.  However the paranoid personality often interprets others’ intention and environment or events incorrectly.  This incorrect read is often taken as a personal threat and harmful to relationships.  It causes them to hold grudges, distrust people and become hostile to people who don’t deserve the cold shoulder.  Close friendships are uncommon and a cold disposition in attitude is the norm.  Early childhood trauma may be a cause, and is more common in males (Martel 2015).

Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD)

They are detached from close relationships and lack motivation and drive to be with others or build relationships.  They have a limited range of emotions and require little to no approval or attention from others.  For the most part they have a persistent indifference of interests that make relationship building near impossible.  Since the social skills are lacking a secretive lifestyle preference to remain in solitude and away from others seems to be the norm (Glunk 2015).

Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD)

 An eccentric personality type with severe anxieties in a social sense and lacks an emotional response.  They display paranoia and anxiety around people and have unusual beliefs outside of conventional norms.  They are somewhat a loner and feel more comfortable living in solitude.  At times may appear to others as delusional due to strange thoughts and behavior.  The mannerisms are often bizarre by-way of socially nervous tendencies with atypical communicative speech patterns.  Which include talking to themselves and hard to follow rambling and complicated speech patterns.  “While STPD is on the schizophrenia spectrum, people with STPD don’t usually experience psychosis (Martel 2015).”  Psychosis is defined as a loss of contact with reality.

Cluster B Personality Disorder (Type Dramatic and Erratic)

 Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD, or ASPD) 

With the breakdown of traditional famly values and structure an increase in PD's occured.

With the breakdown of traditional family structure and values an increase in PD’s and homelessness arose.

The APD characteristics display manipulative behavior, lack of conscience and care for others and adept at manipulation.  To be charming is a ruse to get what they want to self-gratify and feel no guilt over the deceit.  “While statistics indicate that 50%-80% of incarcerated individuals have been found to have antisocial personality disorder, only 15% of those convicted criminals have been shown to have the more severe antisocial personality disorder type of psychopathy (Dryden-Edwards and Stoppler 2016).”

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Behavioral irregularities are often displayed by abrupt and unpredictable mood changes and outbursts.  Self-image issues and high fear sensitivities to rejection and abandonment make it difficult to maintain relationships.  Destructive behaviors such as suicide threats and attempts are often associated with this disorder.  “The diagnosis of BPD is frequently missed and a misdiagnosis of BPD has been shown to delay and/or prevent recovery.  Bipolar disorder is one example of a misdiagnosis as it also includes mood instability. There are important differences between these conditions but both involve unstable moods.  For the person with bipolar disorder, the mood changes exist for weeks or even months. The mood changes in BPD are much shorter and can even occur within the day (NEA 2016).”

 Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)

This personality type feels a need to be center of attention, lacks empathy, and displays an egocentric behavior and feels full of self-importance.  Also sees themselves above others in appearance or intellectual endowment [whether true or not] has a grandiose sense of entitlement and believes he/she is special, or falls into a high class or status of people.  “Because personality disorders describe long-standing and enduring patterns of behavior, they are most often diagnosed in adulthood.  It is uncommon for them to be diagnosed in childhood or adolescence, because a child or teen is under constant development, personality changes and maturation. However, if it is diagnosed in a child or teen, the features must have been present for at least 1 year (Bressert 2016).”

Grandiosity is closely associated with NPD.  It is considered a personality disorder.  Where one feels entitled, is self-absorbed and lacks empathy for others.  “Grandiosity occurs when a person has an inflated self-esteem, believe they have special powers, spiritual connections, or religious relationships.  When grandiosity is severe, the person may be delusional about his or her capabilities (Droogendijk 2009).”

Chronic PD's often break up relationships. While distrust, anxiety and paranoia anti-social loner behaviors increase.

Chronic PD’s often cause close relationships to never begin. Distrust, anxiety and paranoia increase anti-social loner behaviors.

He/she has an unrealistic sense of superiority and are often referred to as narcissist, or Bipolar and seem boastful and rude.  They feel a sense of uniqueness which can only be matched intellectually and understood by a handful of people.  And since they feel superior to everyone else they have distain for those they see inferior to them.  “In the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the presence of grandiosity is used in combination with several other symptoms to confirm a diagnosis of bipolar.  This symptom also occurs in children with early onset bipolar disorder (Purse 2016).”

Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD)

This type of personal disorder is obsessed with appearance and acts sexually provocative with excessive attention seeking tendencies.  They desire to be at center stage to get reassurance and approval.  And are overly sensitive to criticism and disapproval which causes inappropriate and unwanted behavior.  Such as an over the top melodramatic outburst and manipulative behaviors which push people away.  The outbursts are coupled with a consistent flood of emotional storms that reap havoc on romantic, social and for that matter, inability to solidify any meaningful and long term personal commitments and relationships.

Since this personality type has a low tolerance toward delayed gratification, they often blame others for their shortcomings.  Although negative attention may seem shallow to others, it is better than no attention at all for this person.  “Histrionic personality disorder can improve with talk therapy and sometimes medicines.  Left untreated, it can cause problems in people’s personal lives and prevent them doing their best at work (Berger 2014).”

Cluster C (Personality Disorder:  Type Anxious and Fearful)

How much time would be spent counting the different colored flowers before you could move on.

How much time would be lost if you couldn’t control an obsession to count the different colored flowers in front of you before you moved on.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

This disorder is displayed by orderly perfection and preoccupation to detail that causes a lack of flexibility with regard to healthy lifestyle and time balance.   The disorder is also a contributor of workaholic tendencies.  Fears of losing control over orderly perfection is the compulsion which causes the irrational obsession to continue its course.  And this interferes with getting things done that matter.

Or what would you do if you couldn't more forward until all cloud formations represented an image. I.e., looks like a head with ear wings.

Or what would you do if you couldn’t more forward until all cloud formations made sense. E.g., looks like a head with ear wings.  Ridiculous… not to someone with a complex mix of PD traits.

“Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation — that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress) (Bressert 2016).”

Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD)

Family playing at beach lake

Personality disorders often begin during childhood and not diagnosed until adulthood. Fear of loss, anxiety and unacceptance from others begin irregular and erratic thoughts and behavioral patterns early on in life.

Fears rejections and feeling of inadequacy in front of others, but wants desperately to be accepted.  Very self-conscious and avoids social group settings and situations when possible.  Jobs with little human interaction are preferred.  “Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is usually first noticed in early adulthood and is present in a variety of situations. ‘APD is treated in much the same way as social anxiety disorder.  Cognitive-behavioral therapy, social skills training, group therapy, and medication have all been shown to have some impact on the disorder.  However, it is sometimes difficult for people with APD to trust their therapist enough to complete treatment (Cuncic 2016).”

Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD)

The need to be taken care of to meet emotional and physical needs and fear of abandonment and being alone cause’s clinginess.  The reliance on others to make important life decisions is needed for advice and reassurance.  If relational trusts are broken, suicidal tendencies and acts increase.

Mental Health Treatment and Homelessness Connection

Daytime drifter and homeless shelters occur in not so obvious settings. But blend well into seasonal beach activities.

Daytime drifter and homeless shelters occur in not so obvious settings. But blend well with seasonal outdoor recreational activities.

A combination of mental health and drug prescription [psychotherapy] treatment plan includes exploration of inappropriate behavioral causation that triggers out-of-control feelings and thoughts.  Once childhood or adult abuse-history connects to current social, or environmental, or personal stress-triggers that cause erratic and undesirable behavior; a relative diagnosis and treatment plan is prescribed to manage it.

However there are caveats to this approach.  Success of treatment is dependent on accurate diagnosis and wiliness of patient to opt-in, trust their medical care provider and follow the treatment plan.

For instance, “The treatment that’s best for you depends on your particular personality disorder, its severity and your lifestyle situation.  Often, a team approach is needed to make sure all of your psychiatric, medical and social needs are met.  Because personality disorders are long-standing, treatment may require months or years (MayoClinc 2016).”  In severe cases when someone can’t care for themselves, or present harm to others, admittance to psychiatric care is the process towards stabilization.  Thereafter may lead to successful outpatient treatment.

Recall, I stated the individual has to opt-in to receive mental health resources and follow the treatment plan.

Unfortunately for too many, the inability to take responsibility for a personality disorder problem causes a revolving door that does not adequately help a chronic mental health condition especially when connected to drug addiction.  For those who choose to self-medicate and deal with a chronic personality disorder… many of those people are homeless.

The treatment protocol for the mentally unstable homeless person who is a public nuisance and is drug addicted and breaks the law doesn’t receive the mental health resources they need.  Although homelessness is not a crime and not all homeless people commit crimes… personality disorders are found within a large sector of the homeless population.  Many have all the signs and symptoms of PD’s.  That is they have fears and anxieties and paranoia associated with anti-social lifestyle which leads to obsessions and depression and illegal self-medication habits.  These behavioral habits amplify the PD stress-triggers which cause inappropriate behavior.

When the mentally-ill are caught for inappropriate behavior or breaking the law to sustain their habits, short-term jail time or out-patient psychiatric care is served.  Jail time release is often conditional on probation agreements which are almost always broken by those with complex personality disorders and drug abuse.  Homeless people with a complex PD and drug addiction history don’t have the mental faculties or resources to comply with orderly and civil penalty processes like the rest of us.  So the sequence is repeated costing tax payers dearly as the revolving door to the homeless is a reactive civil penalty process as opposed to a proactive mental health solution.

Community must come together to find proactive solutions to deal with the homeless problem.

Community must come together to find proactive solutions to deal with the homeless problem.

There is no good answer for the homeless that suffer with personality disorders and/or drug addiction.  Not until society determines they want to be part of the solution.  And that solution must provide the comprehensive mental health treatment, public transportation and affordable housing resources needed to get on with their lives.  I regress, moving on…

Medications may include stabilizers to help balance mood swings and impulses, or anti-depression medications to help reduce feelings of hopelessness and irritability.  If a patient has lost touch with reality then anti-psychotic drugs are prescribed.  Anti-anxiety medications are to help reduce anxieties.  But for some these drugs can lead to impulsive behavior.  For this reason their avoided when diagnosed with other types of personality disorders.

Get diagnosed and treated by a medical professional if you, or a friend or loved one suffers from a personality disorder that now causes out-of-control behavior, drug addiction and homelessness.   A common treatment program for any one of the 10 diagnosed personality disorders listed above may include a combination of the following: on-going Group, one-on-one psychotherapy [includes mental health and prescription protocol], behavioral-social and drug addiction therapy, etc.

References,

Berger, Fred K., MD. “Histrionic Personality Disorder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.” MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine, 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Bressert, Steve, Ph.D. “Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Symptoms | Psych Central.” Psych Central. Psych Central, 17 July 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Bressert, Steve, Ph.D. “Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Symptoms & Treatment | Psych Central.” Psych Central. Psych Central, 18 Nov. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Carey, Elea. “Personality Disorder.” AARP. HealthReferenceLibrary, 31 July 2012. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Cuncic, Arlin. “Avoidant Personality Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder: Shared Genetics.” Verywell. About, Inc., 27 July 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Droogendijk, Daniel, RPN. “Bipolar Mania Symptoms.” Grandiosity – Bipolar Disorder Symptoms. Daniel Droogendijk, 4 Feb. 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Dryden-Edwards, Roxanne, MD, and Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD. “Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms, Treatment, Causes – What Is the Difference between Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy? – MedicineNet.” MedicineNet. MedicineNet, Inc., 16 Feb. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Gluck, Samantha. “What Is Schizoid Personality Disorder?” HealthyPlace. HealthyPlace.com, Inc., 20 Oct. 2015. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Martel, Janelle. “Paranoid Personality Disorder.” Healthline. Healthline Media, 17 Dec. 2015. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Mayo Clinic Staff Print. “Personality Disorders.” Treatment – Personality Disorders – Mayo Clinic. MayoClinic.org, 23 Sept. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016

Moore DP, Jefferson JW. Borderline personality disorder. In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of Medical Psychiatry.  2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2004: chap 138.

Montandon M, Feldman MD. Borderline personality disorder. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2008: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008.

Purse, Marcia. “Grandiosity in Bipolar Disorder: Definition and Stories.” Verywell. About, Inc., 14 July 2016. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

NEA. “BPD Overview – Borderline Personality Disorder.” Borderline Personality Disorder. NEA.BPD, 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Author:  Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, USA Medical Services Officer, CPT, RET.  2009 Copyright.  All rights reserved, Mirror Athlete Publishing @: www.mirrorathlete.com, Sign up for FREE Monthly eNewsletter.





Why Most American’s Have a Drug Addiction Problem

22 01 2012

Sometimes We Can't See What's in Front of Us Until it's Gone

Why do I say most American’s have a drug problem?  Oh I don’t know, could it be that when looking through our nation’s addiction related statistics it doesn’t bode well in understanding we have a big problem.  Let’s take a look at the most recognized illegal/legal drug use data and then decide how many of us will escape an addictive habit that could ultimately cause each one of us more pain and suffering than necessary throughout our lifetime.  And just because a depressant or stimulant can be purchased legally does not mean it is not causing harm to you or others around you.

While rummaging through the Internet, I noted there was a ton of information on legal and illegal drug use and addiction.  Looking at the DEA Drug Seizure statistics for 2010, I came up with the following drug confiscation data seized and measured in kilograms:  Cocaine (29,179 kgs), Heroin (690kgs), Marijuana (722,476kgs), and Methamphetamine (2,067 kgs), Hallucinogens (2,578,935 dosage units).  These numbers are indeed impressive drug seizure statistics.  But, it is also acknowledged by all drug enforcement agencies that these numbers only represent a fraction of what’s being used on the streets.  So really, how do you quantify actual production and use of drugs under the radar?

In 2010, national and state statistics information pertaining to drug use, addiction and drug abuse shows:  22.6 million Americans over the age of 12 have used illicit drugs within the last month of the survey being completed.  The drug most used by 17.4 million individuals other than alcohol is marijuana; and then followed by painkillers, then hallucinogens and cocaine.  Drug overdoses has risen 540% since 1980.  Prescription drug abuse is up 500% since 1990.  The cost to employer’s employee productivity from drug abuse is 122 billion dollars per year.

Now looking at alcohol as America’s number one legal drug problem, it appears almost none of us can escape being exposed to a likely addiction that for many will destroy lives.  After all none of us knows who has an addictive predisposition to alcohol or for that matter any other legal or illegal drug.

It is also true drug use data serves as a good statistical consumer indicator for other business models to fulfill consumer supply and demand. Addictive drug use data can also be used as a predictive indicator to determine future consumer sales and potential earnings for other related products and services.  For example, in knowing Americans spend an average of $90 billion dollars every year on alcoholic beverages has a percentage based relationship to alcohol related crash and spousal abuse data.  These statistics are very good predictors of other social and penal services that will likely be used to justify budgets for example.

For many children an alcohol experience begins at a very early stage in life.  This proof is easily obtained by simply reviewing a bit of data.  For example, at the beginning of the year 2000, an estimated 7 million of our youth from 12 to 20 years old admitted to being drinkers.  Another 6.4 million were admitted binge drinkers.  Over 6 million children claimed to live with parents that have a drug addiction problem.  56% of students in grades 5 to 12 mention that advertising alcoholic beverages encourages them to drink.

In 2001, a survey showed 25 million Americans admitted to driving under the influence of alcohol and that 23% of our 18-25 year olds self admitted to this fact.  Local law enforcement statistics shows us that ~2 million arrests nationwide are made each year due to driving under the influence.  Although these statistical numbers are alarming, it would be more alarming because only a portion of alcohol abuse is recorded because a majority of those driving under the influence are not caught.  The same is also true of national surveys; many alcoholics do not self-proclaim their alcohol use.  But one statistic is pretty clear:  the latest National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) shows 17,488 people were killed in vehicular traffic related accidents.  Now compare that number to a mid-size populated town and that statistic is alarming.

What is the impact to our economy regarding alcohol abuse?  Approximately 100 million in health care costs.  That does not include employment productivity losses, penal system costs, personal injury, property damage and intervention treatment, etc.  Unemployed adults are found to be the highest percentage (12.2%) of drinkers between the ages of 26 through 34.  Industrial injuries (47%) and fatalities (40%) are directly related to alcohol abuse.

It is very difficult to hone in on what’s creating America’s addictive product consumer use habit.  It’s more like American’s have a constant battle to control addictive behavioral habits they know are bad for them and those around them.  It doesn’t help that the marketers find other ways to add addictive and unhealthy products back into the consumer food chain for the sake of generating higher profit margins.  For example, adding more caffeine and sugar in our consumer foods, to include more nicotine in our tobacco products.   Talk about shooting fish in a barrel at a young age.  This is a good way to target in on the young addictive personality types that will likely begin a new consumer drug habit.  It stands to reason future generation will likely fall prey to other unhealthy addictions.

Let’s take a look at the two legal consumer products in our markets and cost to our health and economy when abused.  Every year tobacco kills 440,000 people through tobacco related illnesses.  That’s more Americans than the Vietnam and WWII casualties combined.  In total, tobacco causes more than 5 million disease related deaths per year (lung, kidney, breast, pancreas, lymph, ovaries, larynx, mouth and neck cancer, etc.).  Also think about the medical sustaining costs for related illness and diseases caused by tobacco use and the impact on our national health care system.

For every 1 person that dies from smoking tobacco, 20 more will suffer with a long-term illness (respiratory, immune, intestinal, organ failure etc.).   The tobacco industry spends approximately $34 million dollars a day in advertising (2006).  It’s no wonder roughly 1 in 5 high school students are addicted to tobacco.

Another way to look at this picture, we the consumer are “in a way” paying the $34 million dollar a day tobacco advertising bill.  You ask how?  The advertising and promotion of tobacco products is increasing consumption of tobacco products at younger ages while contributing to increased health care costs.   You may, or may not agree with that.  But if you see a half truth in this, it means a partial cost to nonsmokers.

Following this partial cost logic…  Why can a tobacco business deduct an advertising expense that creates more health insurance and tax cost to non-smokers.  But we the non-smoking tax payer cannot deduct portions of our Medicare and receive reduced health insurance cost benefits? How’s that fair?  Shouldn’t these manufactures, or health insurance carriers be required to pay the difference of the nonsmokers Medicare and tax burden for contributing to the total cost of our health care system?  I think that would be fair.  But that’s another story.

Moving on, let’s look at the “seemingly” least harmful addiction consumer business market model.  This consumer model hopes to create repeat addicts to more caffeine and sugar drinks by first attracting our youth to an addictive and “seemingly” harmless “pick me” up in the morning and then “later” integration of these products for future generations hooked on the products.  One only has to think of the plethora of energy drinks that has entered our market place within the recent years.  These drinks are loaded with caffeine and sugar and proven to cause illness and disease when abused.

For example a Monster Energy XXL drink contains 4 times the average content of caffeine found within a can of soda (22-46mg of caffeine). This energy drink contains 240mgs of caffeine.  The 81g of average sugar content in products like this appear to contribute to weight gain and obesity.  And when the metabolism becomes impacted by the ingredients for one, leads to anxiety and increased blood pressure.  It is also noted that once a consumer stops drinking these drinks after a period of time the following withdraw symptoms occur:  depression, lethargy, nausea, headaches and vomiting.  Although daily doses up to 400mg of caffeine/day for most adults is OK (University of California), it is not healthy for nursing mothers, children and teens.  Another noteworthy caffeine statistic:  50% of the population or 150 million Americans drink coffee.  Also, independent coffee shops alone equate to 12 billion in annual sales.

It appears that most American’s young and old have very addictive consumer habits in general with regard to tobacco, sugar and caffeine products including prescription and illegal drug use.  From this perspective you must understand that addictive products influence behavior to repeat the habit.  And with that being said, you can follow the logic: consumer sales are partly dependent on repeat behavioral habits and are predictable by our markets.  I like to refer to this predictability as landing the fish through repeatable and dependable behavioral habits.  In other words our market place, government and law enforcement understands a percentage of people when given the opportunity to get their hands on a product will likely try it, and at some point in their lives will also abuse it.  And therefore a percentage of consumers will become a hooked fish that cannot resist biting again.

Luckily, and although disturbing only a fraction of Americans as seen within the data presented have a serious legal/illegal drug dependency problem.  And thinking further about this addiction model, benefits the economy by creating and sustaining many jobs (penal system, socialized intervention programs, drug enforcement, prescription drug manufacturing, health care, distilling/sales of spirits, tobacco industry, chemical food additive industry, etc.).

The economic and commerce logic appears to be: it is a small portion of society that appears to be an acceptable addict and ill-health casualty.  This cost of doing business appears to be good for the benefit of the whole.  I’m not saying this is a good thing, or I agree with it.  I’m saying it is important to understand this relationship.  And in understanding the relationship, you and your family have an opportunity not to become an economic consumer casualty and burden on others.

Many lives are lost and families are destroyed as indicated by this data.  Our society has deemed the loss to be a small price to pay as our freedoms and liberties allow us choices within the boundaries of the law.  Our government and businesses also see addiction abuse as a small cost of doing business.  And these models will not likely change much because the detrimental cost to our society appears to be acceptable by a majority of a free society.  However, with escalating health costs, this model will likely change in significant degrees throughout the years.

Thinking more on repeatable and predictable consumer behavioral habits also leads to the following conclusions.  I believe addiction is wired into each one of us and we all will crave something in our lives to make us feel better about our circumstances or realities.  Our commerce and government business models understand this consumer-habit-behavioral connection that may/may not lead one to destructive and addictive habits.  And also understands a percentage of us will become cash cow industries for disability and ill-health consumer demands by its very nature of a churning economy.

Let me also point out addiction does not always involve a drug habit.  For example, we can also be addicted to power, control and greed.  These things when or if not balanced in life create internal and external stresses that effect one or others that can lead to an addictive drug habit.  So by the shear nature of being human we can all push, pull and shove each other into “misery loves company” addiction regardless of societal class.  I’ve not pinpointed what is causing our ever increasing addictive needs for a daily pick me up, or to relax during free time.  I suspect our need of addictive consumption is partially related to cultural shock caused by competitive global markets.

We now find ourselves living in a 21st Century world that has become politically, socially and economically constrained by various and competitive cultural models.  And these models have become ever too complex and an unacceptable shock reality for many.  I’m not sure our physical, mental and spiritual beings are wired to adequately survive these cultural shock stresses.  And for those that can’t deal with these ever changing environmental stresses, marketers then acquire a new wave demographic of addicts that need a bigger energy boost or drug fix throughout the day to deal with the competitive stress of living in a new world economy.  This is just one way you could read why addictive drug habits and bad behaviors are on the rise.

You’ll find much information on the Internet to support the contention that cultural shock, drug use and addiction are inter-related and are greatly affecting behavior.  For which many genetically predisposed to addiction will become statistical addicts and mortalities of harmful drugs.

It is obvious there is a plethora of addictive legal and illegal products in the market that are easily obtainable for our consumption.  Unfortunately when you become addicted to any substance; the potential to abuse other drugs also tend to increase.

And harmful drug dependency not only harms the user, but also harms others with whom they interact.

References

US Drug Enforement Administration. Statistics and Facts.  http://www.justice.gov/dea/statistics.html

Michael’s House.  Drug Addiction Facts and Statistics http://www.michaelshouse.com/drug-addiction/drug-addiction-statistics/

Drug-Rehabs.org. Alcohol Statistics. http://www.drug-rehabs.org/alcohol-statistics.php

MyAddiction.com. Tobacco, Smoking, and Nicotine Addiction Statistics and Facts. January 14, 2012 http://www.myaddiction.com/education/articles/tobacco_statistics.html

Wilkinson, J. Monster Energy Drink Addiction.  Mar 7, 2011 http://www.livestrong.com/article/398579-monster-energy-drink-addiction/

Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, USA Medical Services Officer, CPT, RET. 2011 Copyright, All rights reserved, Mirror Athlete Publishing @: http://www.mirrorathlete.com,  Sign up for your Free eNewsletter.

 





Recognize Personality Disorders

23 07 2009

Personality disorders (PD) are long-term chronic patterns of erratic behavior that most likely will require a lifetime of care.  Common behavioral attributes of PD:  Relationships tend to swing viciously from love to hate; avoid real, or imaged abandonment and view themselves as victims taking very little responsibility for their problems, or themselves.  PD is very susceptible to self harm through drug and alcohol abuse which tends to complicate the disorders exponentially.  Studies show a PD connection to child abuse and neglect; but need not be abused to develop PD.  Personalities of children growing into adulthood diagnosed with personality disorder display antisocial, obsessive, detached, hostile or needy behaviors.  Symptoms:  Crisis is handled through wrist cutting, over dosing, inappropriate anger, binge eating, shoplifting, impulse spending, substance abuse, sexual relationships, unable to be alone, emptiness and boredom.  Recognize PD and seek mental health.

There are currently ten classified Personality Disorder (PD) types within 3 clusters:  1)  Obsessive-Compulsive (OCPD) “Focused on order and perfection, lack flexibility which interferes with getting things done; Avoidant (APD) social anxiety, self-conscious, social avoidance, rejection hypersensitive; Dependent (DPD) neediness, cling to others, fear of rejection, or suicidal with disintegrating relationships.  2) Histrionic (HPD) melodramatic and over the top, constant emotional storms, seek attention and approval, negative attention is better than no attention; Narcissistic (NPD) feel need to be center of attention, lack empathy, egocentric behavior, feel entitled, misperceive others speech and actions, negative personal interactions; Borderline (BPD) inability to regulate emotion, abrupt mood changes, impulsivity, unpredictable outbursts, highly sensitive to rejection, fear of abandonment, suicide threats and attempts; and Antisocial (APD, or ASPD) manipulative behaviors, lack of empathy, or conscious, adept at cold-calculating manipulation, self-gratification not caring of others.  3) Schizotypal – Odd thought, perception and belief, eccentric looking with speech that is difficult to follow and can become disabling if the disorder becomes persistent; and Schizoid – Detached from social relationships, week social skills, loners (do not wish to be socially outgoing).

References,

1) Moore DP, Jefferson JW. Borderline personality disorder. In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of Medical Psychiatry.  2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2004: chap 138. 

2)  Montandon M, Feldman MD. Borderline personality disorder. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2008: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008. 

World Wide Web References:
3)  (http://personalitydisorders.suite101.com/article.cfm/what is a personality disorder)
4)  http://assets.aarp.org/external_sites/adam/html/1/000935.html?CMP=KNC-360i-YAHOO-HEA&HBX_OU=51&HBX_PK=borderline_personality_disorderPD has a poor outlook because people that go through treatment often do not comply with treatment.  Recommendation:  On-going Group and one-on-one therapy and medication.

Author:  Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, USA Medical Services Officer, CPT, RET.  2009 Copyright, All rights reserved.  Mirror Athlete Enterprises Publishing @: www.mirrorathlete.com, Sign up for your free eNewsletter.